For learning cranial nerves first we should know what is function of cranial nerve.cranial nerves are pairs of nerves that connect brain to different parts of body like head, neck, and trunk. There are 12 cranial nerves .Each cranial nerves function is different.Every nerve also has a corresponding Roman numeral between I and XII. This nerve location is structure by part as olfactory nerve is closest to the front of your head, so it’s designated as I.
Their functions are usually categorized as being either sensory or motor. Sensory nerves are those nerve that have senses, such as smell, hearing, touch. Motor nerves such nerves that controls the movement and function of muscles or glands.
Now we will see the one by one function of each nerve.
- The olfactory nerve:-it is sense of smell.
- The optic nerve :-it is for vision
- The oculomotor nerve:-Provides motor function for all eye muscles
- The trochlear nerve:-provides motor function to the superior oblique muscle of the eye.
- The trigeminal nerve:-This is the largest cranial nerve and is divided into three branches consisting of the ophthalmic, maxillary and mandibular nerves.
- The abducens nerve:- It provides motor function to the lateral rectus muscle of the eye.
- The facial nerve:-it provides motor innervation to the muscles of facial expression, lacrimal gland, submaxillary gland, sublingual gland, as well as sensory supply to the anterior two-thirds of the tongue
- The acoustic nerve:-provides sensory innervation for hearing and equilibrium.
- The glossopharyngeal nerve:-Swallowing, sense of taste, and saliva secretion
- The vagus nerve:-motor innervation to the heart, lungs, and gastrointestinal tract.
- The accessory nerve:-motor function to the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles
- The hypoglossal nerve:-it is a pure motor nerve that innervates the muscles of the tongue.