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Animal Hormones

We know that hormones in Animals is different from plants hormones.so no we will study hormones in Animals

What is hormones in animals?

Hormones means a regulatory subjstance which are produce in organism for  information transfer.

We know that squirrels when it is in a scary situation,their bodies  prepare for either fighting or running away.so both fighting and runing are different thing and that are done by different hormones.

now we will take second example

suppose if a chemical signal were to be sent , it would reach all cells of the body and provide the” wide ranging changes”. This is done in many animals, including human beings  using a hormone called adrenaline that is secreted from the adrenal glands.so when hormones secreted by adernal glands then it will do particular task in our body.

endocrine Glands in human beings
Image source rpstutor

Now in above figure there is different types of gland and hormones produce are also different.Before Learning glands first we will classified.

So there are two types of glands endocrine glands and exocrine glands .

i)Endocrine glands:-  Endocrine glands are part of your endocrine system. They make hormones and release them into your bloodstream. These hormones control  a number of important functions in our  body for example

          • body growth and development
          • mood
          • reproduction

so Endocrine Glands include:

          • Adernal  glands
          • Pituary glands
          • hypothalamus glands
          • thyroid glands

Now we will see function of some endocrine glands

Adernal glands:-



cranial nerves sensory and motor

cranial nerves
cranial nerves image by rpstutor

For learning cranial nerves first we should know what is function of cranial nerve.cranial nerves are pairs of nerves that connect brain to different parts of  body like head, neck, and trunk. There are 12 cranial nerves .Each cranial nerves function is different.Every nerve also has a corresponding Roman numeral between I and XII. This nerve location is structure by part as  olfactory nerve is closest to the front of your head, so it’s designated as I.

Their functions are usually categorized as being either sensory or motor. Sensory nerves are those nerve that have  senses, such as smell, hearing, touch. Motor nerves such nerves that controls the movement and function of muscles or glands.

Now we will see the one by one function of each nerve.

  1. The olfactory nerve:-it is sense of smell.
  2. The optic nerve :-it is for vision
  3. The oculomotor nerve:-Provides motor function for all eye muscles
  4. The trochlear nerve:-provides motor function to the superior oblique muscle of the eye.
  5. The trigeminal nerve:-This is the largest cranial nerve and is divided into three branches consisting of the ophthalmic, maxillary and mandibular nerves.
  6. The abducens nerve:- It provides motor function to the lateral rectus muscle of the eye.
  7. The facial nerve:-it provides motor innervation to the muscles of facial expression, lacrimal gland, submaxillary gland, sublingual gland, as well as sensory supply to the anterior two-thirds of the tongue
  8. The acoustic nerve:-provides sen­sory innervation for hearing and equilibrium.
  9. The glossopharyngeal nerve:-Swallowing, sense of taste, and saliva secretion
  10. The vagus nerve:-motor innervation to the heart, lungs, and gastrointes­tinal tract.
  11. The accessory nerve:-motor function to the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles
  12. The hypoglossal nerve:-it is a pure motor nerve that innervates the muscles of the tongue.

X linked recessive


we know that a gene is the physical and functional unit of heredity or small portion of DNA as it is responsible for transformation of heridity from parent to offspring.

There is different types of heridity  and x linked recessive is one of the types of heridity.

now comes to point “what is x linked recessive”

X linked recessive inheritance is nothing but only disorder that are located on the x chromosome.male have two  X chromosome ,while male have one  X  and one Y chromosome.

there is a 50 percent  possiblity that daughter in family carry gene and can pass it to the next generation.There is a 50 percent chance that a daughter  in family will not carry the gene.it is same for boys in family.

x linked recessive disorders:-

now we will see most common disorders:

  • X-linked agammaglobulinemia:-it affects the immune system  it is mainly occurs exclusively in males.